Speaking of low scores, junior Young Na Lee fired the Gophers’ low round of the tournament for the second time in a row, carding a 1-under par 71 in the final round to help Minnesota solidify its finish.Lee’s 71 was also a career best, one stroke better than her previous mark which she set a year ago at the Indiana Invitational and tied last week at the Diablo Grande.Final rounds seem to be Lee’s specialty, as all three of her best scores have all come on the last day.Unfortunately, those numbers have always followed rounds in the 80s.“She does a good job of finishing with good rounds,” associate head coach Kristine Wessinger said. “Now we just need to get her to start off with those 71s and 72s.“But I was proud that she came back and finished very well.”In her brilliant round yesterday, Lee didn’t think she necessarily hit the ball a lot better, but her mindset allowed her to be successful.“I was a little bit more aggressive on my shots and more decisive,” she said. “I didn’t hit the ball bad the first rounds so it’s the mental side that I have to improve on, but it’ll come.” Despite a 10th place finish, Minnesota happy with its team score in Oregon tournamentMarch 26, 2008Jump to CommentsShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailPrintThe Minnesota women’s golf team’s version of the West Coast Swing has come to a close, but the Gophers have some solid play to show for it.Minnesota finished off its trip yesterday, firing a 54-hole total of 944 at Eugene Country Club to finish 10th out of 15 teams in the Oregon Duck Invitational.Though it was a significantly lower finish than the Gophers’ victory last week at the Diablo Grande Invitational, they managed to best that winning score by 10 in Oregon.And similar to Diablo Grande, Minnesota showed steady improvement over all three rounds.A final round 307 kept the Gophers firmly in the 10 spot and bettered their first round 323 and second round 314.Individually, Minnesota was led by Teresa Puga, who was a model of consistency, shooting a 77-78-77-232 to tie for 24th.Puga, a freshman from A Coruña, Spain, has played just four collegiate tournaments and has been a dependable anchor in each, but Director of Golf Brad James sees potential for much lower rounds from her.“She’s obviously very consistent but she’s also capable of shooting some scores in the 60s,” he said. “I think once she gets more comfortable in her environment you’ll start seeing some low scores for her.”
A new study found that influenza vaccine yielded moderate overall protection during the 2012-13 flu season, an unsurprising result. But it also offered a couple of surprises, including that patients who missed the current vaccine but had received the previous year’s version still seemed to have some protection against the virus.The study, published this week in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, also suggested that the flu vaccine was not significantly protective against influenza A/H3N2 in children ages 9 through 17, a finding that puzzled the authors.The investigators also found that the trivalent (three-strain) vaccine for 2012-13 provided moderate protection against both lineages of influenza B, not just the Yamagata lineage included in the vaccine—unlike some previous studies.”Cross-lineage protection and residual effects from prior vaccination were observed and warrant further investigation,” the report observes tersely.Test-negative design usedThe study was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) Network, which includes five centers around the country, in Marshfield, Wis.; Ann Arbor and Detroit; Temple-Belton, Tex.; Seattle; and Pittsburgh.The authors used a test-negative case-control study design, wherein patients with an acute respiratory illness during flu season are tested for flu and their vaccination status is determined. Those who test positive are classified as cases and those who test negative as controls.The team enrolled 6,766 patients in the study, of whom 6,452 were included in the analysis. Of those, 36% tested positive for flu. Among cases in which the flu type could be determined, 1,292 were H3N2, 52 were 2009 H1N1, 582 were influenza B/Yamagata (the vaccine strain), and 303 were B/Victoria.Current-season flu vaccination was documented in 45% (2,877) of the patients. Of these, 83% received inactivated flu vaccine (IIV), 8% received the live attenuated (nasal spray) vaccine (LAIV), less than 1% received other vaccine types, and 8% had an unknown vaccine type. Current and prior-year vaccination were highly correlated.Overall effectiveness 49%With those numbers, the authors calculated the overall VE, adjusted for various confounders, at 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43%-55%). By virus subtype, VE was 39% against H3N2 (95% CI, 29%-47%), 66% against B/Yamagata (95% CI, 58%-73%), and 51% against B/Victoria (95% CI, 36%-63%). VE against H1N1 was not assessed because there were too few cases to give meaningful results.In an age-group analysis, the researchers found that the vaccine provided significant protection against any flu strain in all groups except those 65 and older. For H3N2, VE was low not only in the elderly (11%; 95% CI, –41%-43%) but also in children ages 9 through 17 (24%; 95% CI, –12%-49%).In other findings, the effectiveness of IIV and LAIV did not differ significantly in children aged 2 through 17 years, the report says. For H3N2, IIV had 36% effectiveness (95% CI, 15%-51%), compared with 46% for LAIV (95% CI, 13%-66%). For B/Yamagata, the numbers were 68% (54%-77%) for IIV and 53% (20%-73%) for LAIV.Effect of prior-year vaccinationTo assess the effects of previous-year vaccination, the researchers defined four vaccine-exposure groups: those vaccinated in both the current and prior seasons, vaccinated in the current season only, vaccinated in the prior season only, and not vaccinated in either season. They limited the analysis to patients at least 9 years old. Also, they note that the H3N2 and B components of the vaccine were changed for the 2012-13 season.The investigators found that, when compared with those who received neither year’s vaccine, the first three groups all had similar protection against H3N2. The adjusted VE numbers were 35% (CI, 21%-47%) for those vaccinated both years, 37% (CI, 19%-51%) for current-season-only vaccinees, and 33% (12%-49%) for prior-season-only vaccinees. The results varied somewhat by age-group.In the same analysis for type B, the researchers found that VE was higher than for H3N2 and similar for all combinations of current and prior-season vaccination and all age-groups. For example, VE against B/Yamagata was 62% for both-season vaccination, 69% for current-season only, and 50% for prior season only.”Overall, we found minimal differences in effectiveness against A/H3N2 and B for each of the three current and prior season vaccination exposure groups, suggesting some residual effect of prior vaccination on current season VE,” the authors wrote.More than expected residual protection”The point is that there’s more residual protection than we thought,” said coauthor Arnold Monto, MD, a professor of epidemiology and public health at the University of Michigan, in an interview. But he cautioned, “I think the whole issue of prior-year vaccination is one we don’t fully understand.”Monto said his group has been analyzing some of its findings from comparative clinical trials of IIV and LAIV from 2004 to 2008 and has found that with IIV, the waning of antibodies after vaccination was less than previously thought. “Therefore the concept that it’s very important to get vaccinated late in the vaccination season,” to shorten the time between vaccination and potential flu exposure, “may have been relatively overstated.”The current findings contrast with those of a study published last year by Monto and colleagues in Clinical Infectious Diseases. They recruited 328 households and monitored them during the 2010-11 flu season. The results showed that flu risk was almost the same in vaccinated and unvaccinated participants. But when the researchers looked separately at participants who had been vaccinated in the 2010-11 season but not in the previous season, they found a VE of 62%, whereas those who were vaccinated in both years had no significant protection.Monto said his group’s household studies generally suggest that those who were vaccinated in the current season but not the previous season had more protection than those who were vaccinated in both seasons. “But the differences are not that great,” as the confidence intervals for the estimates tend to be wide and overlapping, he added.In the new paper, the authors observe, “The immunologic effects of repeated vaccination are not well understood, and additional studies are needed to understand the impact of past infections, past vaccinations, and antigenic variability on risk of illness.”In other comments, the authors said the low VE against H3N2 in 9- to 17-year-old children was unexpected, since vaccine performance in that age-group was similar to that in other groups in the previous season. Further work, they said, is needed to identify factors that might contribute to lower protection in older children.Monto suggested that the finding of low VE for H3N2 in older kids may not mean much. “If you cut things too much in terms of the age-groups, you’ll find results that can’t be replicated in other years,” he said in the interview. “There’s some degree of random variation, because we’ve always found that age-group pretty responsive” to the vaccine.As for the finding of significant protection against both type B lineages, the authors wrote that cross-lineage protection was also found in Canada in 2012-13 and in the United States in 2011-12, but Canadian data for 2011-12 showed little or no cross-lineage protection.The authors said their current finding of cross-lineage effectiveness, along with the similar previous evidence, suggests that quadrivalent (four-strain) flu vaccines “may provide little or no additional protection compared to trivalent vaccines,” which target just one type B lineage.They added that further research is needed to assess whether quadrivalent vaccines yield greater benefits in children, who have had fewer natural influenza B infections than older groups have.McLean HQ, Thompson MG,. Sundaram ME, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the United States during 2012-13: variable protection by age and virus type. J infect Dis 2014 (Early online publication Nov 18) [Full text]See also: Mar 1, 2013, CIDRAP News story on earlier Michigan study examining effect of prior-year vaccination
MILAN, (Reuters) – Napoli scored twice before halftime and hit the woodwork three times in yesterday’s 2-1 Serie A win over Lazio, who had defender Francesco Acerbi sent off to end his remarkable run of 149 consecutive matches. The win, their 15th in 20 league games this season, left second-placedNapoli six points behind leaders Juventus who host bottom club Chievo on Monday while Lazio dropped out of the Champions League places.Acerbi had been ever-present since October 2015 in all competitions, firstly for Sassuolo and then for Lazio following his move at the start of this season.After playing 148 matches in a row – staying on the pitch for the full 90 minutes in each – the 30-year-old’s run ended when he was given a second yellow card for a foul on Jose Callejon in the 70th minute. As a result he will be suspended for the next game at home to Juventus.Lazio coach Simone Inzaghi argued, however, that Acerbi should not have been dismissed.“I’m sorry because we were back to 2-1 and there were 25 minutes left. Acerbi clearly took the ball, then maybe even the opponent. They are the sort of episodes which have gone against us recently.” Arkadiusz Milik volleyed against the post and then saw a header pushed onto the woodwork by Thomas Strakosha before Jose Callejon fired the hosts ahead with his first goal of the season in the 34th minute.Milik doubled Napoli’s tally three minutes later by curling an exquisite free kick into the top corner.Fabian Ruiz smacked a left-foot shot against the top of the upright early in the second half but Ciro Immobile reduced the arrears in the 65th minute with a shot through the legs of defender Raul Albiol. Despite having Francesco Acerbi sent off for a second yellow card shortly afterwards, Lazio did enough to make Napoli’s life uncomfortable towards the end and the final whistle was greeted with huge relief by the San Paolo crowd.Napoli, with 47 points, opened up a seven-point gap between themselves and third-placed Inter while AS Roma’s 3-2 win over Torino on Saturday took them fourth, the last of the Champions League places, with 33. Lazio are a further point behind in fifth.“We had some difficult moments and could have dealt better with some of them and there were some naive errors, but overall there was a lot of quality,” said Napoli coach Carlo Ancelotti.